Constitution, Judiciary and the Memories of Congress Rule-I*
Prof. Makhan Lal
Some time back in a Television interview Mr. Harish Salve said that “I had spoken to a few BJP leaders that, though you may have got the absolute majority but please do not underestimate the destabilizing powers of media, political activists, people taking recourse to the court cases by filing PIL.”
In the last three months most of the public discourse and media space have been taken away by the cacophony of the opposition in the name of saving constitution and the dignity of the Supreme Court judges. Lawyers having political affiliation/loyalties to different opposition parties have come together under the leadership Congress to save the Constitution and the dignity of judges. Even the president of the Congress party has called CJI names and a Bench fixer citing certain politically motivated PIL. In order to threaten the Judiciary they are spreading falsehood and threatening judges with frivolous allegations and even impeachment.
It is, therefore, important to look at the history as to how these forces have done the damage to the prestige and dignity of Judicial Institution and the Judges in the past.
When we look at the issues in historical perspective we find that Congress and Communists are the biggest culprits in undermining the dignity and independence of judiciary. It all began with Jawaharlal Nehru himself. Justice B.P. Sinha recounts that when Justice Harilal J. Kania, the then Chief Justice of India, died suddenly and prematurely due to a heart attack on 6th November 1951, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehruwas inclined to supersede Justice M. PatanjaliSastri, Mehar Chand Mahajan and B.K. Mukherjee in favour of Justice S.R. Das as CJI. But, as Justice Sinha mentions, an ‘unwritten law’ prevented this to happen.1 Justice PatanajaliSastri finally took oath after working couple of month as Acting Chief Justice of India. This was the only time that Supreme Court of India had an acting Chief Justice. Due to Nehru’s adamancy no one could be appointed immediately after the Death of Justice Kania.
· This is a four-part article on the various issues on Supreme Court of India. An earlier version of this four-part article was published by the Vivekananda International Foundation, New Delhi.
However, after the retirement of Justice PatanjaliSastri, Nehru again tried to have his own way in the Supreme Court of India when he wanted to supersede Justice MehrChand Mahajan as both could not see eye-to-eye on Kashmir issue where Mahajan was the Prime Minister of Kashmir during most difficult period of Indian history, i.e. between 1946 and 1947. They both had corresponded bitterly and complaint to Sardar Patel that otherone is not listening. Mahajan was against the designs of Nehru on Kashmir issues and warned that Nehru’s approach to the problem will lead to disaster.Sardar Patel used to take the role of mediator between the two. Nehru was not happy that Mahajan was chosen by Justice Kania to be elevated as the judge in Supreme Court. After CJI PatnajaliSastri’s retirement on 3rd January 1954 Nehru wanted to bring in M.C. Chagla from Bombay High Court straight as the Chief Justice of India.2The Supreme Court judges not only resisted such a move but even told Nehru that if, “you want a Chief Justice other than Mahajan you might as well think of having a whole new Supreme Court.”3Justice S.R. Das, who was being persuaded to take over as CJI, told Nehru plainly that rather than taking oath as Chief Justice he will resign.
Between 1954 and 1973 relationship between the bureaucracy and the judiciary was not in best of terms. Bureaucracy often had its way in getting appointed people of its choice. But at the same time if the Chief Justice of India did not want a person and set his foot down then bureaucracy accommodated CJI. But such things remained far away from the glares of the public eye.4
The real onslaught on judicial independence and judges’ dignity began with Mrs. Indira Gandhi’s arrival on the scene. After losing KesavanandaBharati case5 Mrs. Gandhi not only decided to bring the Supreme Court to its knees but also teach a lesson to dissenting judges. InKesavanandaBharati case the judgment was pronounced on 24th April, 1973and the CJI Justice S.M. Sikri was to retire the following day. After Sikri three most senior judges were Justices J.M. Shelat, K.S. Hegde and A.N. Grover in that order. Immediately after the pronouncement of judgement the Political Affairs Committee of the Cabinet met on 24th April itself and decided to appoint A.N. Ray, superseding three most senior judges. All India Radio in its 5 p.m. bulletin on 24th April, announced the appointment of Mr. A.N. Ray as the Chief Justice of India. CJI S.M. Sikri and three most senior Justices Shelat, Hegde and Grover resigned. Thus, the judges were punished for not towing the line of the Governmentof the day. Congress leader like Rajani Patel, Mohan Kumar Mangalam and many other have been talking about “packing the Supreme Court with judges committed to the government.”6
Mr. Mohan Kumaramangalam, Siddhartha Shankar Ray, H.R. Gokhale and many other in the Congress have been saying openly that “supersession had been brewing in the party and among Indira’s advisors for a long time, since winter, at least.” Judiciary was seen as a hurdle in the path of the Government.7
“Law Minister Gokhale confided, some years later, that the ‘Prime Minister. Siddhartha [Shankar Ray], and Kumaramangalam were adamant. In fact Prime Minister was scared of Hegde becoming Chief Justice….[because] Hegde’s decision [in the matter of election petition by Raj Naraian in the Allhabad High Court] was against the Prime Minister’s interest.” According to her personal Secretary, N.K. Seshan, ‘Indira Gandhi was bent on getting rid of Hegde. She was the moving force behind it.”8Hegde was superseded purely on the ideological grounds and personal considerations.
H.R. Gokhale, S.S. Ray and M. Kumaramangalam recommended Justice A.N. Ray, according to most accounts, because he (Justice A.N. Ray) was expected to be ‘pliable’ as well as liberal. Sheila Dixit recalls that ‘Mohan and Gokhale told Indira and that A.N. Ray was the best.’9
The matter did not end here. The process was repeated when it was now the chance of Justice H.R. Khanna taking the oath of CJI. Congress and Mrs. Gandhi could not forget that in KesavanandaBharati case it was Justice H.R. Khanna who sided with Justice S.M. Sikri and Others and established the concept of basic tenets of the Constitution which cannot be altered by means of amendments as decided in the GolakNath case.10
Justice H.R. Khanna, during emergency, gave the dissenting judgement in the popularly known as Jabalpur ADM caseor Habeas Corpus11case that under no circumstances Fundamental Rights and the right to life of citizens can be suspended, giving unlimited powers to the executive to take away life and liberty denied the judiciary its ‘sentinel’ role and thus violated one of the basic tenets of the Constitution. Justice Khanna wrote in the judgement that:
“Law of preventive detention, of detention without trial, is an anathema to all those who love personal liberty. Such a makes deep inroads into basic human freedoms which we all cherish and which occupy prime position among the higher values of life…. Even in the absence of fundamental rights the state has got no power to deprive a person of hislife or personal liberty without the authority of law. That the essential postulate and basic assumptionof the rule of law in every civil society.”12
Hearing the judgment Jayaprakash Narayan spoke for the hapless Indians:
“The decision has put out the last flickering candle of individual freedom. Mrs. Gandhi’s dictatorship both in its personalized and institutional form is now almost complete.”13
The censor did not allow News Papers to report Justice Khanna’s dissenting judgment. The other four judges, namely A.N. Ray, M.H. Beg, Y.V. Chandrachud and H.N. Bhagvati, gave the judgement what Mrs. Gandhi wanted. Thus, the case was decided four versus one. The emergency detunes remained in jail without trial and without any right to life.
Justice H.R. Khanna was the last of the seven judges who held that while Parliament is entitled to abridge some ports of Fundamental Right or amend any provisions of the Constitution in exercise of its amending powers, it cannot destroy the basic structure or framework of the Constitution and cannot take away anything from Part III of the Constitution i.e. Fundamental Rights.
Of those seven judges, who had given majority judgment in KeshvanandBharati casethat certain basic structure of the Constitution cannot be amended,Chief Justice S.M. Sikri retired/resigned the next day of delivering judgement i.e. on 25 April; Justices J.M. Shelat, K.S. Hegde and A.N. Grover resigned upon being superseded for the office of the Chief Justice of Indiainfavour of A.N. Ray. Justice A.K. Mukherjea died in harness and justice P. Jaganmohan Reddy retied in due course. The last continuing judge of the seven who held that the constitution cannot be made to suffer a loss of identity through amending process was Justice H.R. Khanna.
Justice Khanna resigned on 28 January 1977 when he, the SeniorMost judge in the Supreme Court, was superseded by the Congress Government for Chief Justiceship. Of the six judges constituting minority judgment in KeshavanandBharati case, Ray had already become CJI, rest of the three serving judges went on the become CJI when the turn came.
However, it is important to recount the aftermath of this landmark judgment decided by four versus one. After the judgement was delivered. Ashok Sen, Nehru’s Attorney General and Indira Gandhi’s lawyer in election case, called on Khanna to congratulate him for saving the grace of Indian Judiciary. Niren De, the then Attorney General, took Khanna aside at a tea party and said, “May I offer my congratulations for your great judgement!”14
Y.V. Chandrachud and M.H. Beg were to lament later in the life for giving judgement under fear and greed. Speaking to the FICCIon 22 April 1978 Chandrachud said:
“I regret that I did not have the courage to lay down my office and tell the people, well this is the law.”15
Justice Beg, while giving a ruling in a post-emergency case, said:
“[T]hat the Habeas Corpus ruling was perhaps misleading as it gave the impression that no petition at all would lie under either Article 32 or 226 to assert the right of personal liberty because the locus standi of the citizens were suspended.”16
The exclusion of judiciary from the scrutiny of the constitutional amendments was not the end in itself. The independent judges were harassed, punished and blackmailed and amenable ones were given promotions and rewards like Padma awards, nomination to Commissions and various other ways like nomination to Rajya Sabha. High Courts and the Supreme Court became Mrs. Indira Gandhi’s main hunting grounds. Mrs. Gandhi resorted to the transfer of judges from one High Court to another and that too from one corner of the country to another. This made judges very unsettled and venerable. During the emergency, on the pretext of achieving national integration, 16 High Court judges were transferred just in one go. Dealing with the transfer case during the emergency and this innovative method of national integration Justice Y.V. Chandrachud observed (in post emergency period):
“There are numerous other ways of achieving national integration more effectively than by transferring the High Court Judges from one High Court to another… Considering the great inconvenience, hardship and possibly a slur which a transfer from one High Court to another involves, the better view would be to leave the Judges untouched and take other measures to achieve that purpose. If at all, on mature and objective appraisal of the situation, it is still felt that there should be a fair sprinkling in the High Court judiciary of persons belonging to other States, that object can be more easily and effectively attained by making appointments of outsiders initially.”17
During the emergency a large number of Additional Judges in various High Courts were denied routine extensions or confirmation. These judges were mostly those who had ruled against the unlawful detention of ordinary citizens during the emergency. This included Mr. R.N. Aggrawal, Additional Judge of Delhi High Court, who had ordered the release of KuldipNayar from preventive detention. In 1980 when Congress returned to power five High Court Chief Justices were retired without being confirmed. Additional Judges were being given extensions or given appointments only at the last moments and were made to fill in several very demeaning statements,. The Congress Party leaders and the Government left no stone unturned to malign and demoralize the judges. A cabinet Minister of the Mrs. Gandhi’s government had bracketed the whole judiciary with the opposition parties just because the judges would just not accept and do what the Congress government wanted. Not only the Congress party and the Congress government were talking about Committed Judiciary but also one of the law ministers in Mrs. Gandhi’s cabinet went as far as issuing a letter to each judge through the State Chief Ministers that:
“The Government of India thinks very highly of those ‘value-packed’ judges who never rule against the Government, and will consider favorably their promotion to the Supreme Court.”
Indeed a letter of blackmail.
Congress and Mrs. Gandhi were not satisfied only by crushing the highest judiciary but also incorporated several Amendments (Amendments from 24 to 42) in the Constitution making Mrs. Gandhi virtual monarch and the Constitution subservient to her.
1. Justice B.P. 1985, Sinha, Reminiscences and Reflections of a Chief Justice, p. 71.
2. G. Austin, 1999, Working a Democratic Constitution, p. 134; also see M.C. Chagla, 1978, Roses in December, pp. 170-72
3. P.K. Chatterjee in an Interview to G. Austin, 1999, Working a Democratic Constitution, p. 134.
4. For details see Gerge H. Gadbois, Jr. 2011, Judges of the Supreme Court of India 1950-1989. OUP; AbhinavChandrachud, Supreme Whispers: Conversations with Judges of the Supreme Court 1980-1989, 2018, OUP. (This book is based on 116 Interviews with 66 judges (retired and sill in service then) of the Supreme Court by George H. Gadbois Jr.)
5. KesavananadaBharativ.State of Kerala, AIR1973 SC 1461: (1973) 4 SCC 225.
6. Stateman, 3 May, 1973.
7. Chandrjeet Yadav’s interview to Granuville Austin, 1999,Working a Democratic Constitution, OUP, 1999, p. 280-81.
8. Granuville Austin,1999, Working a Democratic Constitution, OUP, 1999, pp. 283-84.
10. Golak Nath v State of Punjab, (1967) 2 SCR 762: AIR 1969 SC 1643.
11. A.D.M. Jabalpur v. Shivakant Shukla, AIR1976 SC 1207: (1976) 2 SCC 521.
12. Ibid.; Supreme Court Reporter, p.246; see also N.A. Palkhiwala, 1997, We the People, p. 298.
13. Statement issued on 15 May 1976; Narayan Papers Subject file 323, NMML.
14. Granuville Austin,1999, Working a Democratic Constitution, OUP, 1999, pp. 341-42.
15. Hindustan Times, 23 April, 1979
16. UpendraBaxi, Indian Supreme Court, p.111.
17. Y.V. Chandrachud in Union of India v. Sankal Chand HimatlalSheth and others; Date of Judgment 19.09.1977.